Elevated Plasma Pancreastatin, but Not Chromogranin A, Predicts Survival in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Duodenum


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the duodenum are rare, heterogeneous, and often indolent neoplasms. We hypothesized that elevated pancreastatin levels are an indicator of a poor prognosis in well-differentiated duodenal NETs.

Study Design

Data from patients diagnosed with a primary duodenal NET were analyzed. Patients that underwent esophogogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, or exploratory surgery to localize their neoplasm and whose tumors were confirmed histologically were included.


Eighty-four patients were diagnosed with duodenal NETs from January 1991 to January 2014. Seventy-five percent and 21% of patients had their tumor localized by esophogogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound, respectively. The remaining 4% were localized during exploratory surgery. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate for the entire cohort (N = 84) was 80%. Survival sorted by normal vs abnormal pancreastatin level was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Five-year survival rates were 94% and 37% for normal and abnormal pancreastatin, respectively. In contrast, survival sorted by normal vs abnormal plasma chromogranin A level was not statistically significant (p = 0.24).


Patients with primary duodenal NETs have high 5-year survival rates. Serial monitoring of plasma pancreastatin levels can identify patients who have a poor prognosis.

Read the full article on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons​